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Keynote Speech

New International Standards for Indoor Environmental Quality

Bjarne W. Olesen, Ph.D., Dr.H.C., R., Professor

On the international level ISO, CEN and ASHRAE are publishing new and revised standards related to indoor environmental quality. ISO and CEN will for the first time publish a standard covering all aspects like thermal comfort, indoor air quality (ventilation), acoustic and illumination. This presentation will focus on indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality. In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments can be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements and also for designing buildings for different quality levels. This will require a better dialogue between the client (builder, owner) and the designer. The presentation will also discuss differences between the standards.

Dr. Bjarne W. Olesen is a full professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, where he also is head of the International Center for Indoor Environment and Energy. He is ASHRAE President Elect. He has been working on indoor thermal comfort, ventilation and sustainable heating and cooling of buildings since 70s. He is active in several ASHRAE-CEN-ISO standard committees regarding indoor environment and energy performance of buildings and HVAC systems, and has published more than 370 papers including more than 80 in peer reviewed journals. He was awarded the Ralph Nevins Award (1982), Distinguish Service Award (1997), Fellow Award (2001) and Exceptional Service Award (2006) from ASHRAE. Honorary member of AICARR (Italy), SHASE (Japan) and VDI-TGA (Germany).

Role of Ventilation in Preventing and Investigating MERS Outbreak in South Korea

Minki Sung, Ph.D., Professor

South Korea has suffered from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak last year and finally declared an end to MERS after 187 patient was infected and 38 were died among them. The MERS outbreak in Korea was known to be caused by the failure of triage for the index patient and the misunderstanding of the WHO guideline, which lead to the limited isolation of the hospitals where the index patient had stayed. The investigations both on ventilation systems and environmental samples of MERS-CoV were conducted to trace the mode of MERS transmission. In this presentation, the experience and lessons of the epidemiological investigation on the hospitals where the MERS-confirmed patients had infected other patients and staffs will be introduced.

Minki Sung is an assistant professor in the Department of Architectural Engineering, Sejong University, South Korea. He graduated from Seoul National University and received a masters degree at the same university. After working at a construction company, he received a Ph.D. degree at the University of Tokyo. His major research fields are indoor air quality including infection control and building ventilation. He has been working for establishing guidelines and conducting validation of the infectious disease isolation facilities funded by Korea CDC. He was also a member of the epidemiological investigation team supported by Korea CDC during MERS outbreak last year and conducted investigation on the ventilation systems of the hospitals where MERS-confirmed patients visited.

Ventilation Effectiveness

Shinsuke Kato, Doctor of Eng., Professor

Room airflow transport heat and contaminant. The transportation properties are not uniform in a room. There will be the places which are well ventilated and discharged heat or contaminant are quickly exhausted and the places which are not and discharged heat or contaminant stay longer time. The velocity distribution in a room cannot tell you where is well ventilated and where is not. The ventilation efficiency indices are devised and used for evaluating such the transportation properties of room airflow. Some of the indices can be estimated from experimental work however CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technique enables us easy to evaluate all of them. Furthermore, only CFD techniques can evaluate some of those indices. Useful indices will be introduced and their properties will be explained.

Shinsuke Kato is a professor of the university of Tokyo. His main concerns are Fluid Dynamics and their application for building environmental engineering. He was a former president of SHASE (The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan) and a former president of The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics. He is an ASHRAE fellow member and a president of ASHRAE Japan Chapter.

Ventilation and Health

Max Sherman, Dr., Senior Staff Scientist

The principal reason that ventilation is so important in todays buildings is to control the health impacts of indoor-generated contaminants. Ventilation and health issues are not new, but our understanding of them improves. Ventilation is not an end in itself but is intended to provide key building services like preventing overheating, but the most important service it is intended to provide is acceptable indoor air quality. IAQ involves both a health and odor component. In the past, the contaminants that impact the health component have been hard to quantify in any meaningful way, but research in the last few years has begun to make progress. The Air Infiltration and Ventilation Center (AIVC) has recently released a significant publication, a Tech Note entitled Ventilation and Health, that provides an overview of the topic. This presentation will review that Tech Note and provide some additional background on both the topic and the AIVC.

Max Sherman is a senior staff scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California with over 30 years of experience in building physics. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Berkeley and is an international expert in air leakage, HVAC, indoor air quality, infiltration, moisture, energy efficiency, and related topics. He is a member of ASHRAE having served on the Board of Directors and is a recipient of ASHRAEs highest technical award as a Holladay Distinguished Fellow. He has also been elected a Fellow of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ). He represents the United States on International Energy Agency tasks such as the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Center. He has over 200 publications in the field of building physics, particularly related to infiltration, ventilation and indoor air quality.

The ISO and CEN Standards on Energy Performance of Buildings assessment procedures, allowing maximal flexibility and transparency, supporting smart building concepts

Jaap Hogeling, MSc, ME

Developing a new set of Energy Performance of Building (EPB) standards requires a really out of the box thinking approach of the standard developers. This project is considered to be a step forward in progressing towards Energy Codes for Buildings. These EPB standards aim on more comprehensive standards. The EPB set of standards and technical reports will support the holistic approach needed for the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB). The modular structure of the set of EPB standards is flexible in order to allow national, regional and local choices. The Overarching EPB Standard: ISO 42000-1 also facilitates smart building approaches, this standard allows to specify and award local (sustainable) energy production (PV, Solar, Cogen, Wind, etc..), giving rules for import and export and local storage of energy produced and used by buildings in relation to its nearby environment. These concepts are needed to reach the (nearly) Zero Energy Building (nZEB) design.

Jaap Hogeling is Manager international projects and standards of ISSO. Since more as 20 years active in the international standardization work in CEN and ISO. These activities are in the area of energy, energy-efficiency and thermal performance of buildings, their indoor environmental conditions and impact on the environment.

Impact of outdoor PM on indoor environment and its control

Bin Zhao, Dr., Professor

China, as one of the largest developing countries, is facing serious atmospheric environment pollution. Among the ambient air pollutants, particulate matter is always the primary air pollutant for most regions of China (and other developing countries). As people spend most of their time indoors, the impact of outdoor air particulate pollution on indoor environment is significant to the occupants health. In this presentation, I will briefly review the monitoring PM concentration in the main 31 cities in China within one year, as well as the indoor/outdoor PM relationship. Then two examples indicating how the outdoor PM influence indoor environments and human health, which are based on our estimation of outdoor PM migration into indoor environments, will be presented. Some typical controlling strategies, e.g., the indoor air cleaner vs. mechanical ventilation systems, and positive pressure control method, will be discussed.

Bin Zhao is a professor in the Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, China. He has been working on indoor aerosol/particle pollution, indoor airflow modeling and building ventilation. He has published more than 70 peer-reviewed international journal papers in his research field, which have been received more than 1000 non-self citations, with H-index=20 (Web of Science).